Posts Tagged ‘replication’

MySQL 5.6 + GTID & MariaDB 10 replication

While at the keynote of Tomas Ulin at Percona Live MySQL Conference & Expo Santa Clara 2014, he asked the audience what they were running, and most of the audience was on MySQL 5.5 while about 15% of the audience was on MySQL 5.6. This number is steadily increasing I’m sure, so one thing that becomes important is that people will probably start turning on Global Transaction Identifiers (GTIDs). 

As you may already know, MariaDB 10 has a different implementation of Global Transaction ID. To me, this poses a problem in a mixed use environment (or even a migration scenario). Which is why MDEV-4487 is so important: it is a feature request to allow replication from MySQL 5.6+ when GTID is enabled on the master

If you think the issue is important, you can vote and watch the issue on JIRA. I for one think this should be fixed for 10.0.11 or 10.0.12 and not wait for the 10.1 timeframe. Best not to comment here, focus on the JIRA request, MDEV-4487.

Replication features of 2011 by Sergey Petrunia

Sergey Petrunia of the MariaDB project & Monty Program.

MySQL 5.5 GA at the end of 2010. MariaDB 5.3 RC towards the end of 2011 (beta in June 2011).

MySQL 5.5 is merged to Percona Server 5.5 which included semi-sync replication, slave fsync options, atuomatic relay log recovery, RBR slave type conversions (question if this is useful or not), individual log flushing (very useful, but not many using), replication heartbeat, SHOW RELAYLOG EVENTS. About 2/3rds of the audience use MySQL 5.5 in production, with only 2 people using semi-sync replication.

MariaDB 5.3 brings replication features brings group commit in the binary log, which is merged into Percona Server 5.5. Checksums for binlog events which is merged from MySQL 5.6. Sergey goes in-depth about the group commit for the binary log. To find out a little more about MariaDB replication changes, see Replication in the Knowledgebase.

There are several implementations of group commit. Facebook started it, followed by MariaDB & Oracle. Percona 5.5 is GA so the feature is there, its not in MySQL 5.6 (yet?), and MariaDB 5.3 is where its at. Seems like the MariaDB implementation is the best so far – refer to the Facebook benchmark performed by Mark Callaghan.

Annotated RBR poses a compatibility problem. MariaDB 5.3 has annotate_rows, while MySQL 5.6 has rows_query event. They are different events. So you cannot have a MariaDB 5.3 master and a MySQL 5.6 slave at this moment. So MySQL 5.6 will have a flag to mark “ignorable” binlog events which will be merged into MariaDB and this will make binary logs compatible again.

There is now also optimized RBR for tables with no primary key.

MySQL 5.6 also has crash-safe slave (replication information stored in tables). Crash-safe master (binary log recovery if the server starts & sees the binary log is corrupted). Parallel event execution is something that is new in MySQL 5.6 which is the most important feature for Sergey.

Pre-heating: There is mk-slave-prefetch (famous quote: “Please don’t use mk-slave-prefetch on #MySQL unless you are Facebook.”). There is replication booster by Yoshinori Matsunobu. There is a Python version of mk-slave-prefetch that Facebook uses.

Building simple & complex replication clusters with Tungsten Replicator by Giuseppe Maxia

Giuseppe Maxia of Continuent.

MySQL replication is single threaded. Multi-master replication is complex with MySQL. Circular replication works but is very fragile. Once you’ve achieved the feat, how do you avoid conflicts? The lack of global transaction ID today also means you may have slaves that may not be synchronized fully. Finally, some people like to replicate to PostgreSQL, Oracle and MongoDB.

This is where Tungsten Replicator comes into place. Opensource. 100% GPLv2. You can do easy failover (no need to synchronize the slaves manually when a master dies), have multiple masters, multiple sources to a single slave, conflict prevention, parallel replication, and replicate to Oracle/PostgreSQL database (heterogeneous replication – Oracle->MySQL is not opensource, but MySQL->Oracle is).

Parallel replication: ability to replicate with multiple thread at once. Sharded by database (all big sites already use this naturally). Good choice for slave lag problems. Bad choice for single database projects. In their tests to measure slave catch up time between standard MySQL & Tungsten slave with 1hr of sysbench and some 130GB of data, MySQL replication takes 4.5h to catchup, and Tungsten takes less than 1 hour to catchup. This comparison was not made with MySQL 5.6 (the same parallel replication feature at this moment in 5.6 is quite buggy). No need to install Tungsten on the master (Tungsten needs to be on slave). Replication can revert to native salve with 2 commands, but the failover is an issue — so install Tungsten on both!

Conflict prevention. When you have multiple masters you are tempted to do many things that you shouldn’t. Tungsten provides the multi-master topology. Tungsten can help you avoid conflicts. Decide you want to shard your information by database – Tungsten can enforce such rules. Define the rules, applied to either the master or the slave and you can then state to make replication fail or drop silently or drop with a warning.

You can create clusters very quickly with Tungsten. You can install from a centralized point to many servers. You need Java, Ruby, SSH access and a MySQL user with all privileges (used for replication).

Some MySQL-related links

Check out how Linden Labs, creators of the popular game Second Life, upgraded their MySQL database. The MySQL they use? Straight out of Debian! Of course, now, they’re running with the Percona patchset, against MySQL 5.0.84. Definitely a good read.

Its good to see Lars post about contributing to the MySQL replication & backup codebase. It sounds like the replication & backup team have decided that mentoring is the way to go – you get a “coach developer” if the idea is accepted. I like this very much, and sincerely hope it spreads to the rest of the server; it will help decentralise development of MySQL, and the endgame is a larger community.

While I know Christmas is over, The 12 Days of Christmas (MySQL Edition), is actually quite a fun watch :)

Happy New Year all!